Amateur bodybuilders’ self-concept: An exploratory examinationJeanne Mekolichick
Department of Sociology and Anthropology
Radford, Virginia 24142
Key Words: Self-Esteem; Self-Efficacy; Identity, Authenticity; Self- Concept; Bodybuilders
This study quantitatively examined the self-concept of amateur bodybuilders. Using the membership of the National Amateur Bodybuilding Association, obtained via mail survey, three hypotheses were advanced concerning the self-concept of amateur bodybuilders: (1) The more important the bodybuilder identity is to the respondent, the higher the degree of authenticity felt for that identity. (2) The more important the bodybuilder identity is to the respondent, the higher the degree of authenticity felt for that identity, and the higher the degree of self-efficacy experienced by the individual. (3) The more important the bodybuilder identity is to the respondent, the higher the degree of authenticity felt for that identity, and the higher the degree of global self-esteem experienced by the individual. Employing bivariate correlation and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression the data indicate support for hypothesis 1 (p < .01) and partial support for hypotheses 2 and 3. For hypothesis 2, authenticity and the importance of the bodybuilder identity are both significant predictors of self-efficacy (p < .01 and p < .05 respectively), but the importance of the bodybuilder identity is negatively related to self-efficacy. For hypothesis 3, authenticity and the importance of the bodybuilder identity are both significant predictors of global self-esteem (p < .01 and p < .05 respectively), but the importance of the bodybuilder identity is again negatively related to self-esteem.
1.1 The self-concept of athletes has been the topic of considerable research, much of which has demonstrated the benefits of sport participation for the self-concept (See for example Trujillo 1983; Young 1997; Ziegler 1991). Of the many different kinds of athletic participation studied, amateur bodybuilding has not been one of them. While bodybuilders have been the focus of recent sociological and anthropological investigations (Aycock, 1992; Balsamo, 1994; Bolin, 1992; Fisher, 1997; Guthrie, Ferguson, & Grimmet, 1994; Heywood, 1998; Klein, 1993; Johnston, 1995; 1996; Lowe, 1998; Mansfield & McGinn, 1993; Mekolichick, 2001; Miller & Penz, 1991; Obel, 1996; Roussel & Griffet, 2000), the investigations on the self-concept of amateur bodybuilders has almost exclusively been on the issue of self-esteem, and none have examined the potential benefits that participation in bodybuilding can have on other aspects of the self-concept. As such, several components of the bodybuilder’s self-concept have yet to be examined and the potential benefits of participation have yet to be assessed. Mekolichick (2001) calls for the examination of the bodybuilder identity, authenticity, and self-efficacy to obtain a better understanding of the self-concept of bodybuilders.
2. Literature review
2.1 Studied aspects of the athlete's self-concept have included self-esteem, identity, and self-efficacy, among others (See for example Donnelly & Young, 1988; Ewald & Jiobu 1985; Hughes & Coakley 1991; McAuley, 1992; Mekolichick 2001). However, research has yet to examine these aspects together within one study to obtain a picture of the athlete's self-concept. The goal of this paper is to examine these elements jointly using amateur bodybuilders. Within social psychology, specifically symbolic interactionism, the self-concept is viewed as consisting of multiple components (Mead, 1934). Generally speaking, the self-concept consists of attitudes (or evaluations) about the self and the content (or identities) that comprise the self(Rosenberg, 1979). Self-evaluations can be further divided into self-esteem, self-efficacy, and authenticity (see Gecas 1986 for a review). As such, most symbolic interactionist theory and research on the self-concept acknowledges four important components of the self: self-esteem, self-efficacy, identities, and authenticity (See Gecas & Burke, 1995 for a review). These four components of the self are the primary emphasis here. Below I discuss each by addressing their conceptualization, relationship to other components of the self, and the research conducted using the component among bodybuilders.
2.2 Self-esteem refers to one's sense of worth or importance; it is an attitude-positive or negative-held about the self, and includes both cognitive and affective elements (Rosenberg, 1979; Gecas, 1982). Self-esteem continues to be the most studied aspect of the self (Wylie, 1979; Gecas & Burke, 1995). Research on self-esteem demonstrates, among other things, that it is associated with greater well-being, higher achievement, occupational success, and guards one against life’s troubles (Baumeister, 1993; Burns, 1979; Covington, 1992; Luck & Heiss, 1972).
2.3 Fisher (1997), Guthrie, et al. (1994), Klein (1993), and Rousell and Griffet (2000) found bodybuilders to exhibit low self-esteem and feelings of insecurity prior to becoming bodybuilders. The authors argue that a lack of self-esteem and feelings of insecurity drew these individuals into bodybuilding, where a sense of self-mastery and control over one’s body is sought to compensate for perceived deficiencies. Klein (1993) discusses the low self-esteem and insecurities among professional male and female bodybuilders as rooted in overcoming some personal flaw, physical deficiency, or a defective relationship with one’s parents. Roussel and Griffett (2000) concur with Klein by arguing that feelings of insecurity brought the women studied to bodybuilding. Rousell and Griffett (2000) found that bodybuilders are both socially and culturally alienated, while at the same time find self-realization as members of the bodybuilding community. Fisher (1997) uses a social identity perspective to frame her study of how elite female bodybuilders construct gender identity. She found that the bodybuilders were highly motivated and achievement-oriented, but driven by a sense of inadequacy.
2.4 In short, the qualitative literature largely finds that bodybuilders have low self-esteem. However, one study conducted on amateur bodybuilders (Mekolichick, 2001), using a quantitative orientation, found moderate to high levels of self-esteem among the study’s participants.
2.5 Self-efficacy refers to one's sense of self-mastery, competence, or power (Bandura, 1977; Gecas, 1982; 1989). This component of the self-concept refers to one's basic perception regarding how much control they have in their life; essentially it is an assessment of self-competence. That is, if people have a high degree of self-efficacy, they believe that they are competent enough to achieve the ends they desire and avoid the ones they do not. Current theory and research on the concept of self-efficacy suggests that the consequences of a feeling of self-efficacy are beneficial for individual functioning and well-being, such as providing a buffer between stress and depression (Pearlin, Menaghan, Morton, & Mullan, 1981). In general, high self-efficacy has been associated with positive health benefits (See Gecas & Burke, 1995 for a review).
2.6 There is substantial evidence suggesting that self-esteem and self-efficacy are highly and positively interrelated (Gecas & Schwalbe, 1983; Staples, Schwalbe, & Gecas, 1984; Gecas, 2001). That is, if a person increases his or her sense of competence, it is likely that this will also increase their sense of worth, and vice versa.
2.7 For the bodybuilder, control over the body itself may bring a sense of power and therefore be an activity where self-efficacious experiences are available. While this component of the self has not been specifically examined among bodybuilders, many qualitative comments suggest that participation in bodybuilding has lead many to experience self-efficacy (Fisher, 1997; Heywood, 1998; Klein, 1993). Further illustrating the relationship between self-esteem and self-efficacy, Roussel and Griffett (2000), Klein (1993), and Guthrie et. al. (1994) reported that the bodybuilders in their studies felt an increase in their perception of self-worth and feeling a sense of self-mastery after becoming a bodybuilder.Fisher (1997), however, did not find an increase in self-esteem after engaging in bodybuilding.
2.8 Klein (1993) acknowledges that [t]here is a strong sense of security and control that is achieved by adhering to the monastic, somewhat obsessive regimen of contest preparation...and social bonding of like-minded questers...[and that] the narcissism found in mirroring and grandiose displays of self actually serve to elevate esteem to a point where the bodybuilder can harness in the development of a more secure sense of self (p. 177-178).
2.9 In short, prior research suggests that bodybuilding may be an important activity within which one can experience self-efficacy, and that the self-efficacy fostered through participation in this experience may also influence other aspects of the self, particularly self-esteem, as is demonstrated above.
2.10 The third component of the self-concept are ‘role-identities’, or simply ‘identities’. Identities are the various positions one holds in society (Mead, 1934). Individuals are understood to have multiple identities that constitute, in part, the self. Not all of the positions we hold in society are equally valued, however. Some of these positions are more important to how we view our self than others (McCall & Simmons, 1978; James, 1890; Rosenberg, 1979). One conceptualization of how identities are organized according to importance is psychological centrality. Rosenberg and Pearlin (1978, p. 67) describe it as such:
Some elements of the self-concept are at the center of attention, at the heart of the individual's major concerns, others are at the periphery….Thus, the impact of any given component on global self-esteem will depend on its importance or unimportance, centrality or periphery, in the individual's cognitive structure.
Accordingly, those identities that are highly valued --those that are more central to how we see ourselves-- are more likely to have a greater impact on our general sense of self (global self-esteem) (See Ervin & Stryker, 2001 for a review). Thus, as we perform those important roles, we develop a sense of worth and competence about our self.
2.11 Sense of authenticity, refers to the sense that one feels significance and derives meaning from the roles one enacts (Erickson, 1995; Gecas, 1982; Turner, 1976; Turner & Billings, 1991). Role-authenticity, the fourth component of the self-concept, is a more specific concept than ‘authenticity’. Role-authenticity is the sense of feeling ‘real’ when enacting a particular role; that the performance of a role reflects ‘who they really are’ (Benson & Trew, 1995; Reid, Epstein, & Benson, 1993; 1994). Theory and research on role-authenticity suggest that role-authenticity has consequences for perceived behavior and is related to the importance of the role being studied (Reid, et al, 1993 Benson & Trew 1995; Gecas 1986; 1991). Research on the concept of role-authenticity has not been explicitly conducted on bodybuilders; however, prior research on the self-concept may indicate that bodybuilding is, for some, an authentic role (Fisher, 1997; Guthrie, et al., 1994; Roussel & Griffet, 2000).
2.12 The degree of authenticity felt for a role is proposed to be positively related to the importance of the identity for that individual (Benson & Trew 1995; Gecas 1986; 1991). So, the more important the role, the more authentic one feels about enacting that role, and vice versa. And, by extension, the more efficacious and worthy one feels about who they are. Research has found that the importance of an identity, measured as psychological centrality, is positively related to feelings of authenticity associated with that identity (Reid et. al., 1994; 1993). However, research has yet to examine the relationship between a central and authentic identity, and the association with global self-esteem and self-efficacy.
2.13 A significant amount of evidence demonstrates the inter-relationship between one's general sense of worth and competence. Theory and research also demonstrate that identities that are more important to one's sense of self will have a greater impact on one's sense of worth and competence. The degree to which important identities that are consistent with core values of the self, the greater impact those identities will have on one's general sense of worth and competence.Thus, while the studies reviewed above are instructive and examine some particular aspects of the self, they have not produced systematic data regarding bodybuilders’ sense of authenticity in the role of bodybuilder, nor have they quantitatively examined the relationships between the impact of this potentially important, authentic role and its relationship with global self-esteem and self-efficacy.
2.14 The goal of this paper is to provide an exploratory study of amateur bodybuilders’ self-concept and the salutary impact that the bodybuilding activity can have on one's self-concept. While research on participation in other sports has demonstrated positive effects on the self-concept, none have provided a cohesive picture of the athlete's self-concept and none have examined amateur bodybuilders.
2.15 Three hypotheses concerning amateur bodybuilders’ self concept are examined. These hypotheses are:
1. The more important the bodybuilder identity is to the respondent, the higher the degree of authenticity felt for the bodybuilder identity.
2. The more important the bodybuilder identity is to the respondent, the higher the degree of authenticity felt for that identity, and the higher the degree of self-efficacy experienced by the individual.
3. The more important the bodybuilder identity is to the respondent, the higher the degree of authenticity felt for that identity, and the higher the degree of global self-esteem experienced by the individual.
3.1 Five national amateur bodybuilding organizations in the United States were contacted regarding their participation in the study. Only one organization, the National Amateur Bodybuilding Association, USA (NABBA, USA) agreed to participate. Thus, the sample used in this study is a non-probability sample. The use of a purposive sample is appropriate here because the investigation was focused on a specialized population (i.e. amateur bodybuilders) and this study is exploratory in nature (Kalton, 1983; Kish, 1965).
3.2 A complete and current list of the entire national membership of NABBA, USA was obtained from the president of the organization in late June of 1998; this list contained 615 members. A mail survey was conducted using Dillman (1978) as a guide. Following Dillman, a pre-mailing postcard was initially sent in early September of 1998.One week later, a cover letter from the president of the organization was included with the mailed instrument. Four weeks later a second wave of the instrument was sent out. Given financial constraints, a third wave of instruments was not distributed. Due to a number of 'dead' addresses, the practical sampling universe was lowered from 615 to 553. A total of 193 instruments were returned, 190 of which were usable, yielding a 35% response rate. Thus, 190 subjects took part in the study.
3.3 Self-esteem. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (1979) was used to measure global self-esteem. The scale consists of 10 items answered on a five-point Likert scale from 'strongly agree' to 'strongly disagree'. Negative items were reverse coded so that a high score indicates high self-esteem. The possible range for this scale is 10 to 50. The mean for this sample is 43.37 with a standard deviation of 6.01. Consistent with previous research, the internal reliability for this scale within the current study was high-alpha = .82 (see Wylie,1979; Blascovich & Tomaka,1991).
3.4 Self-efficacy. The Pearlin et al. (1981) self-mastery scale was used to measure self-efficacy. The scale consists of 7 items measured on a five-point Likert scale from 'strongly agree' to 'strongly disagree'. Negative items were reverse coded so that a high score indicates high self-esteem. The possible range for this scale is 7 to 35. The mean for this sample is 30.02 with a standard deviation of 4.63. The internal reliability for this scale was acceptable (alpha = .75).
3.5 Role-authenticity. Role-authenticity was measured using a three-item scale adapted from Trew and Benson (1996). The scale consists of three items measured on a five-point likert scale. The three items are: “Being a bodybuilder is consistent with my important values." “Deep down, I often feel that being a bodybuilder is not really me.” And, “Most of the time I like thinking of myself as a bodybuilder." Items #1 and #3 were reverse coded. A high number indicates a high level of role-authenticity. In all cases, including the present study, principle components factor analysis with varimax rotation indicated that the three items were loaded on a single factor. The actual range for this scale was 5 to 15. The mean for this sample was 12.36 with a standard deviation of 2.48. Chronbach’s alpha was used to test for internal reliability; alpha = .73 for this scale.
3.6 Psychological centrality. Psychological centrality was measured using a rank order method (Benson & Trew 1995; Trew & Benson 1996).This approach presents the respondent with a number of identities believed to be important to the sample being tested. The identities: “bodybuilder,” “parent,” “significant other/spouse," "worker/career person" were presented to the respondent in alphabetical order.
3.7 Then, respondents were instructed to think about which of the identities was the most important to how they think about themselves and to rank the identities from the most important identity on the list to the least important on the list.Twenty percent of the sample ranked the identity of bodybuilder as their most important, followed by 26%, 24%, and 29% respectively. The list was then reverse coded for ease of interpretation for the current analysis; high numbers were indicative of high rank.
4.1 The average age of the respondents was 33.9 years, ranging from 17 to 76 years old, with the standard deviation of the sample being 9.55 years. 72% of the sample was male, and 28% female. The racial make-up of the sample was largely Caucasian (82%), with 11% being African-American, 3% being Native American, 1% being Hispanic, 1% being Asian while 2% declared themselves as 'Other'.
4.2 In terms of their education, 16% of the sample had at least a high school education, 29% had some college, 13% went/had been to technical school, 19% had earned a bachelor's degree, 8% had done some graduate work, 12% had earned a master's degree, and 4% had earned a doctorate or its equivalent. The average yearly total household income of the sample was between $40,000 and $60,000, with a mode of between $40,000 and $50,000, and a median between $40,000 and $50,000.
4.3 With reference to their bodybuilding activities, the amount of times the respondents had participated in a competition ranged from zero (5%) to sixteen or more times (18%). The modal category of the number of times competed was one to three (33%). Respondents competed at various levels, ranging from local (13%), to state (35%), to national (26%), to international (11%).
4.4 Hypothesis 1 was tested using Pearson's zero-order correlation (see Table 1). The results indicated a significant positive relationship between importance of the bodybuilder identity to the self and sense of feeling real in the role of bodybuilder (r = .210, p < .01); hypothesis 1 is supported by the data. Thus, the more central an identity is to one's sense of self, the more likely that enacting that identity will produce a sense of authenticity.
4.5 Hypothesis 2 was tested using OLS regression analysis. As can be seen in Table 2, hypothesis 2 was partially supported by the data. Authenticity and the importance of the bodybuilder identity were both found to be significant predictors of self-efficacy, but the importance of the bodybuilder identity was negatively related to self-efficacy; this is in the opposite direction proposed by the hypothesis.
4.6 Hypothesis 3 was also tested using OLS regression. As can be seen in Table 3, authenticity and the importance of the bodybuilder identity were both found to be significant predictors of global self-esteem, but the importance of the bodybuilder identity was again negatively related to self-esteem.
4.7 In an attempt to explain the contrary findings, further analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the identities studied. Bivariate correlations between both the parent identity ( r = -.510, p < .001) and the spouse/significant other ( r = .-420, p < .001) identity were negatively and significantly related to the bodybuilder identity. In addition, the parent identity was significantly and positively related to global self-esteem (r = .263, p < .01), thus possibly suggesting a methodological artifact created from the measurement technique which is discussed below
4.8 The correlation analysis and OLS regression provide support for hypotheses 1 and partial support for hypotheses 2 and 3. The more central the role of bodybuilder is to the sense of self for the respondent, the more authentic the respondent feels in the role of bodybuilder. In addition, the more authentic the role of bodybuilder is for the respondent, the higher the degree of self-efficacy and global self esteem felt by respondents; however, the degree of importance of the bodybuilder identity was significantly and negatively related to the degree of self-efficacy and self-esteem. So, it appears that no matter how central the bodybuilder identity was for the respondents, the more authentic they felt enacting the bodybuilding role, and the more they felt worthy and competent in general.
5.1 Overall, these findings suggest that participation in amateur bodybuilding is beneficial to one's sense of self and provide a clearer picture of the athlete’s self-concept. The importance of the role-identity of bodybuilder positively and significantly influences the degree of authenticity felt by enacting the role of bodybuilder. The degree of authenticity felt by enacting the role-identity of bodybuilder is an important predictor of both the sense of efficacy felt by respondents and their sense of global self-esteem. Thus, enacting the bodybuilding role provides meaning and fulfillment in the lives of these athletes which affect their feelings of competence and worth.
5.2 However, the importance of the bodybuilder identity is negatively related to the experience of self-efficacy and global self-esteem. The fact that psychological centrality was significantly and positively related to role-authenticity, yet significantly and negatively related to both self-efficacy and global self-esteem is an unexpected finding. These findings may be due to several factors. First, by examination of the identity rankings presented above, one will notice the low number of respondents that ranked bodybuilder as their most important identity (20%). In fact, the distributions of the rankings were fairly evenly distributed among the four categories, and the modal category for the bodybuilder ranking was ranked last (29%). As such, the low number of respondents ranking bodybuilder as central to their sense of self could possibly explain the negative relationship between identity importance and global worth and competence.
5.3 A second, and related issue, is the fact that the ranking of identities clearly sets up competition among them. The respondents were asked to rank the importance of their bodybuilder identity against the identities of parent, spouse/significant other, and career person/worker-other potentially important identities in one's life. Given the role-identities that the bodybuilder identity was competing against, it is not surprising that the bodybuilder identity was preceded in importance by the other identities. However, the significant negative relationship between global sense of self and identity ranking may be a methodological artifact. Meaning that, based on how the concepts were measured, the importance of the bodybuilder identity has a smaller impact on the global sense of worth and competence relative to the other identities included in the study, and not a negative effect. This is a similar methodological problem encountered by researchers attempting to examine the relative impact of identity importance and role-specific self-esteem on global self-esteem (See Ervin & Stryker  for further discussion). Thus, the bodybuilder identity's relative importance has a lesser impact on one's sense of global self-esteem and self-efficacy because other, decidedly more important identities contribute much more to the general sense of self relative to the contribution of the bodybuilder identity. In fact, further analyses, discussed above, show significant, negative correlations between both the parent identity and the bodybuilder identity as well as the spouse/significant other identity and the bodybuilder identity. Moreover, the parent identity is significantly and positively related to global self-esteem, thus lending partial support to this claim. Weiss (2001) also notes the potential for competition between sport identities and those from other domains.
5.4 Third, if the bodybuilder identity is authentic and one's sense of authenticity in the role of bodybuilder is positively and significantly related to one's global sense of worth and competence, why is the importance of the identity negatively related to one's sense of global worth and competence? The answer to this question could lie in the relationships among identities within the self structure. Thoits (1986; 1992) and Benson (1993) each noted the importance of investigating identity configurations. Few studies, however, have been conducted examining more than one identity at a time (Benson & Trew, 1995; Mekolichick, 2002; Trew & Benson 1996). Mekolichick (2002) found overlap among the meanings of important identities one holds. Given these findings, it is also reasonable to assume that identities can overlap with regard to one's core values. Thus, the core values are likely to be shared among some of our important identities. And, as a consequence, it is possible that one's sense of authenticity in a role-identity may simply be more important to how we view our self in general (global self-esteem and self-efficacy) than how important we rank our identities. In other words, role-authenticity may be a more important predictor of global self-esteem and self-efficacy than psychological centrality. Ervin & Stryker (2001) also suggest a closer examination of the link between importance and global self-esteem. Whatever the cause of these findings, be it the sample distribution, a methodological artifact, the greater importance of authenticity, or the non-probability sample, future research should be conducted on these concepts and examine multiple identities at a time to further explain this relationship.
5.5 In considering the conclusions drawn, one must reflect on the limitations of this study. There are at least two areas of concern: the use of non-random sampling and response rate. First, with the exploration of identity processes as the goal, the focus here is not on prediction or generalizability to the whole population. This study is an exploratory analysis and, as such, the use of convenience sampling is not destructive to the results obtained. Second, with the response rate for the study at 35 percent, only about a third of the subjects surveyed responded to the questionnaire. A higher response rate would have been desirable. This introduces the issue of selection bias. It is unknown if the respondents who responded to the questionnaire differ from those who did not. However, one might suggest that those who responded to the questionnaire considered the identity of bodybuilder to be more important to their sense of self than those who did not. As such, the issue of selection bias would not affect the findings. However, this is mere conjecture and cannot be tested.
5.6 These limitations not withstanding, at least two other implications can be drawn from the study findings. First, role-authenticity appears to be an important aspect of self-concept and should be explored in concert with other important components of the self, among other sporting populations, and using other athletic identities. Role-authenticity has been found elsewhere (Benson & Trew 1995) to be a mediating component between commitment and evaluation of the group to which the identity belongs. Thus, role-authenticity may behave differently in the self-concept of athletes participating in more marginalized sports that are not evaluated as positively as more mainstream sports. In addition, role-authenticity may behave differently in the self-concepts of athletes in individual sports versus team sports.
5.7 Further exploration of the relationship between the centrality of an identity and one's sense of authenticity should also be conducted among different athletic identities and using different sporting populations--particularly given the findings of this study. Role-authenticity appears to be an important component in influencing one's sense of self. As the literature suggests, we should also examine the influence of role-authenticity on behavioral outcomes, such as the amount of time spent weight training, conditioning, or practicing one's sport.
5.8 These and other theoretically important areas of investigation should now be the subject of future research on the bodybuilder self-concept as well as the self-concept of other athletes at various levels of participation. A growing literature has found that participation in a sport that individuals define as important to who they are can have a salutary impact on their general sense of self. Consequently, further examination of these beneficial effects should be explored. Furthermore, based on the analysis presented herein, more research on the interaction among multiple aspects of the self-concept is desirable and necessary for the extension of understanding the athlete’s self-concept.
Table 1. Means, Standard Deviations, and Intercorrelations for All Study Variables (N = 180)
Variable M SD 1 2 3 4
1. Role-Authenticity 12.36 2.48 -- .210 ** .321** .274**
2. Psychological Centrality 3.41 1.12 -- -.081 -.094
3. Self-Efficacy 30.02 4.63 -- .652**
4. Global Self-Esteem 43.37 6.01 --
** p < .01
Table 2: Regression Analysis Summary for Role-Authenticity and Psychological Centrality
Variable B SEB B
Role-Authenticity .66 .13 .35**
Psychological Centrality -.66 .26 -.16*
Note. R2 = .13 (N = 180).
* = p < .05. ** = p < .01
Table 3: Regression Analysis Summary for Role-Authenticity and Psychological Centrality
Predicting Global Self-Esteem
Variable B SEB B
Role-Authenticity .73 .18 .30**
Psychological Centrality -.90 .39 -.17*
Note. R2 = .13 (N = 180).
* = p < .05. ** = p < .01
Aycock, A. (1992). The confession of the flesh: Disciplinary gaze in casual bodybuilding. Play and Culture 5, 338-357.
Balsamo, A. (1994). Feminist bodybuilding. In S. Birrell and C. L. Cole (Eds.), Women, sport, and culture (pp. 341-352) Champaign, ILL.: Human Kinetics.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
Baumeister, R.F. (1993). Self-esteem: The puzzle of low self-regard. New York: Plenum Press.
Benson, D.E. (1993). Toward an explanation of "Just World" beliefs and processes. Paper delivered at the meetings of the American Sociological Association, Miami, Florida.
Benson, D. E. & Trew, K.J.(1995). Facets of self in Northern Ireland: Explorations and further questions. In A. Oosterwegel, & R.A. Wicklund (Eds.), The self in European and North American culture: Development and processes (pp. 291-307) Amsterdam: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Blascovich, J., & Tomaka, J. (1991). Measures of self-esteem. In J. Robinson, P. Shaver, & L. Wrightsman (Eds.), Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes (pp. 161-194). New York: Academic Press.
Bolin, A. (1992). Flex appeal, food, and fat: Competitive bodybuilding, gender and diet. Play and Culture, 5, 378-400.
Burns, R.B. (1979). The Self concept in theory, measurement, development, and behaviour. London: Longman.
Covington, M.V. (1992). Making the grade: A self-worth perspective on motivation and school reform. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Dillman, D.A. (1978). Mail and telephone surveys: The total design method. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Donnelly, P. & Young, K. (1988). The construction and confirmation of identity in sport subcultures. Sociology of Sport Journal, 5, 223-240.
Erickson, R. J. (1995). The importance of authenticity for self and society. Symbolic Interactionism 18(2), 121-144.
Ervin, L. H., & Stryker, S. (2001). Theorizing the relationship between self-esteem and identity. In T.J. Owens, S. Stryker, & N. Goodman (Eds.), Extending self-esteem theory and research (pp. 29-55) Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge University Press.
Ewald, K. & Jiobu, R. M. (1985).Explaining positive deviance: Becker's model and the case of runners and bodybuilders. Sociology of Sport Journal, 2, 144-156.
Fisher, L. A. (1997). Building one’s self up: Bodybuilding and the construction of identity among professional female bodybuilders. In P.L. Moore (Ed.),Building bodies. (pp. 135-164). Rutgers University Press: New Brunswick, NJ.
Gecas, V. (1982). The self-concept. Annual Review of Sociology, 8, 1-33.
Gecas, V. (1986). The motivational significance of self-concept for socialization theory. In E. Lawler &(Ed.), Advances in group processes (Vol. 3), (pp. 131-156). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Gecas, V. (1989). The social psychology of self-efficacy. Annual Review of Sociology, 8, 1-33.
Gecas, V. (1991). The self-concept as a basis for a theory of motivation. In J. Howard & P. Callero (Eds.), The self-society dynamic: Cognition, emotion, and action, (pp. 171-187). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gecas, V. (2001). The self as a social force. In T.J. Owens, S. Stryker, & N. Goodman (Eds.), Extending self-esteem theory and research: Sociological and psychological currents. (pp. 85-100). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gecas, V., & Burke, P.J. (1995). Self and identity. In K.S. Cook, G.A. Fine, & J.S. House (Eds.), Sociological perspectives on social psychology (pp.41-67). Allyn and Bacon: NeedhamHeights, MA.
Gecas, V. & Schwalbe, M.L. (1983). Beyond the looking-glass self: Social structure and self-efficacy based self-esteem. Social Psychology Quarterly 46(2), 77-88.
Guthrie, S.R., C.Ferguson, & D. Grimmett. (1994). Elite women bodybuilders: Ironing out nutritional misconceptions. The Sport Psychologist, 8, 271-286.
Heywood, L. (1998). Masculinity vanishing: Bodybuilding and contemporary culture. In P.L. Moore (Ed.), Building bodies (pp. 165-183). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Hughes, R. & Coakley, J. (1991). Positive deviance among athletes: The implications of overconformity to the sport ethic. Sociology of Sport Journal, 8, 307-325.
James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology. New York: Holt.
Johnston, L. (1995). The politics of the pump: Hard core gyms and women body builders. New Zealand Geographer 51(1), 16-18.
Johnston, L. (1996). Flexing femininity: Female body-builders refiguring the body.Gender, Place and Culture 3(3), 327-340.
Kalton, G. (1983).Introduction to survey sampling. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage
Kish, L. (1965). Survey sampling. New York: Wiley.
Klein, A. M. (1993). Little big men: Bodybuilding subculture and gender construction. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press.
Lowe, M. R. (1998). Women of steel. New York: New York University Press.
Luck, P.N., & Heiss, J. (1972). Social determinants of self-esteem in adult males. Sociology and Social Research, 57, 69-84.
Mansfield, A., & McGinn, B. (1993). Pumping irony: The muscular and the feminine. In S. Scott and D. Morgan (Eds.), (pp. 49-68) Body Matters. Washington, D.C.: The Falmer Press.
McAuley, E. (1992). Self-referent thought in sport and physical activity. In. T.S. Horm (Ed.), Advances in sport psychology (pp.101-118). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
McCall, G. J., & Simmons, J.L. (1978). Identities and interactions. New York: Free Press.
Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self, and society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Mekolichick, J. (2001).Self-esteem among amateur bodybuilders: A quantitative examination. Sociology of Sport Online,4(2). Available: http://physed.otago.ac.nz/sosol/v4i2/v4i2.html
Mekolichick, J. (2002). The influence of identity meaning independence on the invocation of multiple identities. Sociological Focus, 35(1), 43-54.
Miller, L., & Penz. O. (1991). Talking bodies: Female bodybuilders colonize a male preserve. Quest, 43, 148-163.
Obel, C. (1996). Collapsing gender in competitive bodybuilding: Researching contradictions and ambiguity in sport. International Review of Sociology of Sport 31, 187-201.
Pearlin, L.I., Menaghan, E.G., Morton, A.L., & Mullan, J.T. (1981). The stress process. Health & Social Behavior 22, 337-356.
Reid, S., Epstein, J.S., & Benson, D.E. (1993). Living on a lighted stage: Identity salience, psychological centrality, authenticity, and role behavior of semi-professional rock musicians. In J.S. Epstein (Ed.Adolescents and their music: If it’s too loud, you’re too old, (pp. 301-328). New York: Garland Press.
Reid, S., Epstein, J.S., & Benson, D.E. (1994). Role identity in a devalued occupation: The case of female exotic dancers. Sociological Focus, 27, 1-15.
Rosenberg, M. (1979). Conceiving the self. New York: Basic Books.
Rosenberg, M., & Pearlin. L.I. (1978). Social class and self-esteem among children and adults. American Journal of Sociology, 84, 53-78.
Roussel, P., & Griffet, J. (2000). The path chosen by female bodybuilders: A tentative interpretation. Sociology of Sport Journal, 17, 130-150.
Staples, C.L., Schwalbe, M.L., & Gecas, V. (1984). Social class, occupational conditions, and self-efficacy based self-esteem. Sociological Perspectives 27(1), 85-109.
Thoits, P. (1986). Multiple identities: Examining gender and marital status differences in distress. American Sociological Review, 48, 174-187.
Thoits, P. (1992). Identity Structures and Psychological Well-Being: Gender and Marital Status Comparisons. Social Psychology Quarterly, 55, 236-256.
Trew, K. & Benson, D.E, (1996). Dimensions of social identity in Northern Ireland. In G. M. Breakwell & E. Lyons (Eds.), Changing European identities: Social psychological analyses of social change. (pp. 123-143) Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann
Trujillo, C.M. (1983). The effect of weight training and running exercise intervention programs on the self-esteem of college women. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 14, 162-173.
Turner, R. H. (1976). The real self: From institution to impulse. American Journal of Sociology, 81(5), 989-1017.
Turner, R.H., & Billings, V. (1991). The social contexts of self-feeling. In J. Howard & P. Callero (Eds.), The self-society dynamic: Cognition, emotion, and action. Vol. 2. W. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Young, K. (1997). Women, sport, and physicality: Preliminary findings from a Canadian study. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 32, 297-305.
Ziegler, S.G. (1991). Perceived benefits of marathon running in males and females. Sex Roles, 25, 119-127.
Click On The Class Name Or Topic Of Interest...
- Class Notes - Sociology Matters Text - Agents of Socialization
- Class Notes - Sociology Matters Text - BioPsychoSocial Perspective
- Class Notes - Sociology Matters Text - Chapter Eight
- Class Notes - Sociology Matters Text - Chapter Five
- Class Notes - Sociology Matters Text - Chapter Four
- Class Notes - Sociology Matters Text - Chapter Nine
- Class Notes - Sociology Matters Text - Chapter One
- Class Notes - Sociology Matters Text - Chapter Seven
- Class Notes - Sociology Matters Text - Chapter Six
- Class Notes - Sociology Matters Text - Chapter Three
- Class Notes - Sociology Matters Text - Chapter Two
- Community Action - Community Service
- Human Services - Ethics Legal Issues
- Human Services - Introductory Course
- Principles of Sociology: Articles
- Sociology Culture Articles: Criminal Justice
- Sociology Culture Articles: Culture
- Sociology Culture Articles: Drugs And Addiction
- Sociology Culture Articles: Human Sexuality
- Sociology Culture Articles: Iraq
- Sociology Culture Articles: Politics and Government
- Sociology Culture Articles: The Environment
- Sociology Culture Articles: The Media
- Sociology of Human Sexuality
- Sociology of Males and Masculinities
- Sociology of Media and Popular Culture
- Sociology of Sport
- Theory and Practice of Sociology - Problem Solving Template
- Transfer Information